Arunachal Pradesh is one of the twenty-nine states of the Republic of India. Located in northeast India, it holds the most north-eastern position among the states in the north-east region of India. Arunachal Pradesh borders the states of Assam and Nagaland to the south, and shares international borders with Bhutan in the west, Burma in the east and China in the north. Itanagar is the capital of the state.

Most of the state, formerly called the North-East Frontier Agency, was ceded to Britain by the Tibetan government with the Simla Accord (1914). China does not recognise the legality of that treaty, and claims most of the state as South Tibet. The state is seen to have major potential for hydropower development.

Arunachal Pradesh , whose name means Land of the Dawn-Lit Mountains  in Sanskrit, is also known as the Orchid State of India or the Paradise of the Botanists. Geographically, it is the largest among the North-east Indian states commonly known as the Seven Sister States.

Arunachal Pradesh, a veritable treasure house of nature, tucked away in the North Eastern tip of India, invites you to relax in its picturesque bills and dates. The largest state in India’s north-east is encircled from three sides by Bhutan, China and Myanmar. It stretches from snow-capped mountains in the north to the plains of the Brahmaputra valley in the south. The terrain is mostly mountainous with the Himalayan range along the northern borders criss- crossed with ranges running north-south.

These divide the state into five river vatteys: the Kameng, the Subansiri, the Siang, the Lohit and the Tirap. All the rivers are fed by snow from the Himalayas and countless rivers and rivulets. The mightiest of these rivers is Siang, called the Tsangpo in Tibet, which becomes the Brahmaputra after it is joined by the Dibang and the lohit in the plains of Assam. Come to Arunachal Pradesh to revel in nature in its full splendour.

Enjoy the satubrious climate and meet its simple and hospitable people. Witness the glorious heritage of arts and crafts in the Land where the first dawn breaks in India before any other state. For a tourist the options are varied, each more tempting than the other. 


Neolithic tools found in Arunachal Pradesh indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. The earliest inhabitants of Bhutan and adjoining Himalayan areas of South Asia were the people from Indus Valley Civilisation, whose history predates the onset of Bronze Age in South Asia around 3300BC before the coming of other ethnic groups from Tibet and South China some 2,000 years ago.

The history of pre-modern Arunachal Pradesh remains shrouded in mystery. Oral histories possessed to this day by many Arunachali tribes of Tibeto-Burman stock are much richer and point unambiguously to a northern origin in modern-day Tibet. Again corroboration remains difficult. From the point of view of material culture it is clear that most indigenous Arunachali groups align with Burma-area hill tribals, a fact that could either be explainable in terms of a northern Burmese origin or from westward cultural diffusion.

From the same perspective the most unusual Arunachali group by far is the Puroik/Sulung, whose traditional staple food is called “tasey” or “taase” made from sago palm and whose primary traditional productive strategy is foraging. While speculatively considered a Tibeto-Burmanpopulation, the uniqueness of Puroik culture and language may well represent a tenuous reflection of a distant and all but unknown pre-Tibeto-Burman, Tai and Indo-Aryan past.

According to the Arunachal Pradesh government, the Hindu texts Kalika Purana and Mahabharata mention the region as the Prabhu Mountains of the Puranas, and where sage Parashuram washed away sins, the sage Vyasa meditated, King Bhishmaka founded his kingdom, and Lord Krishna married his consort Rukmini.

Recorded history from an outside perspective only became available in the Ahom and Sutiya chronicles. The Monpa and Sherdukpen do keep historical records of the existence of local chiefdoms in the northwest as well. Northwestern parts of this area came under the control of the Monpa kingdom of Monyul, which flourished between 500 B.C. and 600 A.D. This region then came under the loose control of Tibet and Bhutan, especially in the Northern areas. The remaining parts of the state, especially those bordering Myanmar, were under the control of the Sutiya Kings until the Ahom-Sutiya battle in the 16th century. The Ahoms held the areas until the annexation of India by the British in 1858. However, most Arunachali tribes remained in practice largely autonomous up until Indian independence and the formalisation of indigenous administration in 1947.

Recent excavations of ruins of Hindu temples such as the 14th century Malinithan at the foot of the Siang hills in West Siang were build during the Sutiya reign. Another notable heritage site, Bhismaknagar, has led to suggestions that the Idu (Mishmi) had an advanced culture and administration in prehistoric times. Again, however, no evidence directly associates Bhismaknagar with this or any other known culture but the Sutiya rulers held the areas around Bhismaknagar from the 12th to 16th century. The third heritage site, the 400-year-old Tawang Monastery in the extreme north-west of the state, provides some historical evidence of the Buddhist tribal people. The sixth Dalai Lama Tsangyang Gyatso was born in Tawang. Major tribes of the region include Nyishi, Apatani, Galo, Adi, Monpa, Mishmi, Shingpo, Khamti and Serdukpen.


27° 3′ 36″ N, 93° 22′ 12″ E
27.06, 93.37


83,743 km2(32,333 sq mi)



The climate is predominantly cool during winters, and humid during summers. Temperatures typically range from near about 0 °C (32 °F) to 32 °C (90 °F) over the course of a year. The average temperature during summer is between 19 °C (66 °F) and 27 °C (81 °F), and between 0 °C (32 °F) and 10 °C (50 °F) in winter.


Monthly precipitation varies between 24.1 millimetres (0.95 in) in November to 487.4 millimetres (19.19 in) in July. It is typically around 35.05 millimetres (1.4 in) per month during winter and spring and around 388.13 millimetres (15.3 in) during June to September as the monsoon approaches. The average total annual precipitation is 2,476.6 millimetres (98 in). Snowfall in the region occurs mostly in late November to early January in upper reaches of the district. Aalo receives snow occasionally.


 Arunachal Pradesh has good weather between October and April, when the temperatures are cool in the plains with it getting colder in the higher regions of the state. In fact if you are planning on visiting Bomdila or Tawang this is definitely the best time to visit. It would be best to avoid the rainy season which lasts from June to September when the rains really come down hard and roads get washed away with communications getting disrupted.

Losar Festival is held by the Monpas in December and even though it is a little cold, this is avery festive time to be here and take part in the activities.


The most commonly spoken languages in Arunachal Pradesh are Dafla, Mishri, Adi Gallong, Monpa, Aka, Nocte, Khamti, Nishi, Wancho and Tagin.

The people of the Adi tribe reside in the lofty peaks of the Himalayas; the language spoken by them is known as Adi. Some of the people of this tribe reside in the Upper Subansiri, Siang and Dibang Valley.

Nishi is one of the most common languages spoken across Arunachal Pradesh. Monpa is usually spoken by the people belonging to the ethnic group known as Monpa.

Other than these tribal languages, resident of Arunachal Pradesh also speak Hindi, Deori, Assamese and English.


The nearest railhead is Harmuty, 33km from Itanagar but the most convenient disembarkation point is North Lakhimpur, some 60km distance from Itanagar. The Arunachal Pradesh Express serves Harmuty. Super fast and fast passenger trains will bring you to North Lakhimpur from Guwahati (Assam). Guwahati is extremely well connected to the rest of India. Taxis and buses link both railway stations to Itanagar.


There are no flight services to Arunachal Pradesh. The nearest airport to Itanagar is Lilabari in Assam, which receives flights from Guwahati. The distance between Lilabari airport and Itanagar can be covered in two hours by bus or a taxi.

You can also fly into Tezpur Airport, which is 226 km away, from Kolkata. Both airports are well connected to Itanagar and Naharlugan cities in Arunachal Pradesh by taxis and buses.

CLOTHING REQUIRED: Light woollens and tropicals in summer  and heavy woolens in winter.

One can drive into Itanagar and Naharlugan from neighbouring Assam and Meghalaya and expect a mix of reasonably good motorways and ill-maintained tracks. Tezpur (Assam) also has a direct and frequented road to the tourist spots of Bomdila and Tawang. This is hill country and a roller coaster ride. It’s a good idea to rent a 4WD with a chauffeur or take a bus as driving a car is difficult in this region – stopover and breakdown infrastructure is negligible. Direct buses are available from Guwahati, Jorhat, Dibrugarh, Tinsukhia and Nagaon in Assam as well as from Shillong (Meghalaya) to Itanagar.

Arunachal Pradesh, on account of its unrivaled aesthetics and diverse cultural heritage possesses a great tourism potential. Popular tourist attractions include Tawang (a town with a Buddhist monastery) at 3000 m elevation, Ziro (which holds cultural festivals),Yomcha (limestone caves called ‘tapen uru’), the Namdapha tiger project in Changlang district and Sela lake near Bomdila with its bamboo bridges overhanging the river. Religious places of interest include Malinithan in Lekhabali, Rukhmininagar near Roing (the place as per the popular Hindu mythology, Rukmini, Lord Krishna’s wife, said to have lived), and Parshuram Kund in Lohit district as Puranas is the lake where sage Parshuram washed away his sins, The Ganga lake(Gyaker sinyi or Gekar Sinyi)and various other tourist hot spots.

The state provides abundant scope for angling, boating, rafting, trekking and hiking. Rafting and trekking are common activities. Some suggested routes for travel or trekking are

  • Tezpur–Tipi–Bomdila-Tawang-se la pass
  • Tinsukia–Tezu-Parasuramkund
  • Margherita–Miao-Namdapha
  • Itanagar–Ziro-Daporijo–Along (or Aalo)-pandighat.
  • Aalo – Yomcha (52 km)

Over the years, the Jawaharlal Nehru Museum, Itanagar has become an important tourist destination in the state capital.

The state is rich in wildlife and has a number of wildlife sanctuaries and national parks with rare animals, birds and plants. Perhaps the highest diversity of mammals in India is in Arunachal Pradesh (200+ species). The diversity of birds is also very high, 700+ and is second only to Assam.

Places of Interest in Arunachal

Itanagar  (Capital of Arunachal Pradesh)
ITAFORT, the name Itanagar, capital of Arunachal Pradesh, is derived from the historical fort called Itafort situated in the heart of the town. It is an historical fort of irregular shape built mainly with bricks. It is said that more than 80 lakh pieces of bricks were used to build this fort. The Fort has been identified by same scholars with Mayapur of Ramachandra, a king of Jitari Dynasty which dates back to 1360 to 1550 AD. GEKAR SINYI (GANGA LAKE) is situated in the foothills of the Himalayas is a unique piece of the capital, Itanagar. The lake locally known as Gekar Sinyi (confined water) abounds in natural beauty. Other important places to see are Jawaharlal Nehru State Museum, Craft Centre, EmporiumTrade Centre, Donyi-Poto Centre for hearing impaired, State Forest Research Institute, Zoo, NERIST, Arunachal University, Central and State Libraries, Baba Vishwanath Temple, Kati Mandir, Legi Shopping Complex and Akash Deep complex.


Tale in Apatani dialect is the name of a plant and to many other tribes, the, word means paradise. Talley valley is 30 Km away from Hapoli (Ziro). It is a picturesque little township with the local population growing paddy in terraced fields. The concept of paddy-cum-piscicutture has attracted people and the practice is flourshing. 
Other places of interests are Tarin Fish Farm, Parsi-Parto archeological site, Orchid Garden and Pine & Bamboo groves. 


Situated at an attitude of’5000 ft. (approx), Ziro is a beautiful plateau and the district headquarter of lower Subansiri district. 

Menga Cavecan

It give immense satisfaction to the believers of Lord Shiva and it is a famous holy place of worship drawing large number of visitors and pilgrims specially during the Makar Sankranti and Shivratri.The Subansiri river is ideal for river rafting, angling and picnic. Villages, district library, museum apd craft centre are atso places that could:fiold your interest.


Daporijo is the district headquarters of Upper Subansiri district.


Sub divisional headquarters of West Siang district MALINITHAN is the relics of stone ruins of temples, valuable sculptures. The place is associated with the legend of lord Krishna. It is believed that on the way to Dwarka from Bishmaknagar, Kdshna & Rukmini were resting here and they were offered choicest flower by Goddess Parvati.


The headquarters of East Siang district, Pasighat is situated on the bank of river Siang that is known as Brahmaputra in Assam and Tsangpo in Tibet. Dr. D. Ering Wildlife Sanctuary where wild buffalo, tiger, sambher, deer and with ducks are found in plenty, Museum and Shopping Centres are other places of tourist attractions. 


Along, the headquarter of West Siang District situated on the south bank of river Yomgo, is an ideal place for trekking, hiking and angling in the river Yomgo. Patum Bridge over Yomgo flyer, museum and Donyi-Poto Dere are the places of toufist attraction. 

River Siang 

It is ideal for angling and river rafting. There are numerous small and big tributaries of Siang that gurgle through the entire panorama. lf you throw in your bait in anywhere in the water you could be lucky pulling a Golden Masheers, a trout, a Labeobata or even Sehizo trout out.


Nearly 80 Kms to the north-east of Tezu, the district headquarters, ties Parasuramkund. Here, according to the legend recorded in the Kalika Purana, Parasuram washed away his sins of killing of his mother, in the waters of Brahmakund. On Makar Sankranti each year, a mela is held at the kund where thousands of devotees throng their way to wash their sins away. 

Tinsukia – Tezu – Hayulyang Tourist 

This circuit commences at Tinsukia, a road-rail head in Assam, leading to Tezu, Parasuramkund and Hayulyang in the Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh.


Dong Valley is the place where the first Sunrise in the country is witnessed. Located on the tri-junction of India, China and Myanmar, you can Visit the Dong village, known as the easternmost inhabited place in India, after trekking about 8 kilometers from Walong. Only 18 people Live in the village where the country’ first Sunrise takes place. Other important places to see are Glow Lake, hot springs, Craft centre, District musuem, Buddhist temple etc.

War Memorial at Walong where during the Chinese aggression in 1962, lots of officers and jawans of the Indian army had sacrificed their lives fighting the Chinese army in defense of our motherland. As a mark of respect and remembrance to those brave Martyrs, the army authorities have constructed a gigantic War Memorial at Watonq. 

Tezpur – Seijosa (Pakhui) – Bhalukpong – Tipi – Tezpur Tourist Circuit  

This circuit take us to the Pakhui Wild life Sanctuary, one of the largest sanctuary of Arunachal Pradesh located in the East Kameng district with divisional headquarterS at Seijosa. The Seijosa is a small but beautiful village located on the bank of river Pakhui (Pakke). The Wildlife sanctuary spreads over an area of 861.95 sq km & now has been dectared as Project Tiger Reserve( Pakke Tiger Reserve). Some of the major wild life species found in the sanctuaries are Tiger, Elephants, Gaur, Sambar, Barkingdeer, leopard, Hornbills etc.

Sela Pass

Sela Pass is the high-altitude mountain pass in Tawang District of Arunachal Pradesh state of India. It has an elevation of 4,170 m (13,680 ft). It connects the Buddhist city of Tawang Town to Tezpur and Guwahati and is the main road connecting Tawang with the rest of India.

Namdapha National Park

Namdapha National Park is the largest protected area in the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot and is in Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India. It is the third largest national park in India in area. It is in the Eastern Himalayan subregion and is recognized as one of the richest areas in biodiversity in India.

Mountain Biking
Rock Climbing   
Nature Study Camp   
 Adventure Camp  
Always travel with a guide where it necessary.  
Respect our local culture and use taking permission for restricted places before taking photographs.  
Dress modestly. Be aware of the customs and manners and culture of the local people.  
follow designated route and trails.  
It is customary to leave a donation at a monastery and to circle shrines in clockwise direction.  
Avoid littering and deposit garbage at designated places.  
Keep all pollutants away from streams and lakes.  
learn local culture and spread it.  

Don’t spit in a religious area   
Don’t pluck plants or flowers.  
Don’t smoke, drink alcohol or talk loudly near sacred places.  
Don’t buy endangered species or antiques.  
Don’t disturb wildlife or its habitat.  
Don’t make any type of bad comments about religion, and politics.
Most of Arunachal Pradesh is covered by the Himalayas. However, parts of Lohit, Changlang and Tirap are covered by the Patkai hills. Kangto, Nyegi Kangsang, the main Gorichen peak and the Eastern Gorichen peak are some of the highest peaks in this region of the Himalayas. The land is mostly mountainous with the Himalayan ranges running north south. These divide the state into five river valleys: the Kameng, the Subansiri, the Siang, the Lohit and the Tirap. All these are fed by snow from the Himalayas and countless rivers and rivulets. The mightiest of these rivers is Siang, called the Tsangpo in Tibet, which becomes the Brahmaputra after it is joined by the Dibang and the Lohit in the plains of Assam.

At the lowest elevations, essentially at Arunachal Pradesh’s border with Assam, are Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests. Much of the state, including the Himalayan foothills and the Patkai hills, are home to Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests. Toward the northern border with Tibet, with increasing elevation, come a mixture of Eastern and Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests followed by Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows and ultimately rock and ice on the highest peaks.

The Himalayan ranges that extend up to the eastern Arunachal separate it from Tibet. The ranges extend toward Nagaland, and form a boundary between India and Burma in Changlang and Tirap district, acting as a natural barrier called Patkai Bum Hills. They are low mountains compared to the Greater Himalayas.


Nearest Airport:

Itanagar Airport, a Greenfield project serving Itanagar is being planned at Holongi at a cost of Rs. 6.50 billion. The existing state owned Daporijo Airport, Ziro Airport, Along Airport, Tezu Airport and Pasighat Airport are small and are not in operation. The government has proposed to operationalise these airports. Before the state was connected by roads, these airstrips were originally used for the transportation of food.

Nearest Railway’s Station:

Arunachal Pradesh got its first railway line in late 2013 with the opening of the new link line from Harmuti on the main Rangpara North-Murkongselak railway line to Naharlagun in Arunachal Pradesh. The construction of the 33 kilometre 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge railway line was completed in 2012, and the link became operational after the gauge conversion of the main line under Project Unigauge. The state capital Itanagar was added to the Indian railway map on 12 April 2014 via the newly built 20 kilometre Harmuti-Naharlagun railway line, when a train from Dekargaon in Assam reached Naharlagun railway station, 10 kilometres from the centre of Itanagar, a total distance of 181 kilometres.

On 20 February 2015 the first through train was run from New Delhi to Naharlagun, flagged off from the capital by the Indian prime minister, Narendra Modi. India plans to eventually extend the railway to Tawang, near the border with China.


Arunachal Pradesh has two highways: the 336 km National Highway 52, completed in 1998, which connects Jonai with Dirak, and another highway, which connects Tezpur in Assam with Tawang. As of 2007, every village has been connected by road thanks to funding provided by the central government. Every small town has its own bus station and daily bus services are available. All places are connected to Assam, which has increased trading activity. An additional National Highway is being constructed following the Stillwell Ledo Road, which connects Ledo in Assam to Jairampur in Arunachal. Work on the ambitious 2,400 km two-lane Trans-Arunachal Highway Project announced by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on 31 January 2008 on his maiden visit to the state, was scheduled to be completed by 2015–16 but now due to political and social reasons it may take another decade.

In 2014, two major highways were proposed to be built in the state: East-West Industrial Corridor Highway, Arunachal Pradesh in the lower foot hills of the state and 2,000-kilometre-long (1,200 mi) Mago-Thingbu to Vijaynagar Arunachal Pradesh Frontier Highway along the McMahon Line, alignment map of which can be seen here and here.